“How was your Pesach?” Mr. Weiss asked Mr. Cohen, his neighbor.
“Baruch Hashem!” exclaimed Mr. Cohen. “It was wonderful!”
“Before Pesach, you had a question about chametz that your clients were storing in your warehouse freezer,” said Mr. Weiss. “What ended up happening?”
“Rabbi Dayan instructed me to include that chametz in my mechiras chametz,” replied Mr. Cohen. “Even though it was not mine, I was a guardian for it.”
“I had a similar case,” said Mr. Weiss. “I keep bottles of whiskey in my office for staff meetings. One bottle belongs to a non-observant Jewish colleague. I didn’t include that bottle in my sale. I figured that if he doesn’t care to sell his chametz, I don’t have to bother.”
“That’s not so, since you were entrusted with the bottle,” objected Mr. Cohen. “What happened with it?”
“My rabbi said that the whiskey is prohibited after Pesach,” said Mr. Weiss. “I wasn’t going to get into a whole discussion with my colleague, so I poured the whiskey down the drain.”
“How did he respond?” asked Mr. Cohen.
“He was a little shocked,” said Mr. Weiss. “He’s respectful of religion, though. When I explained what my rabbi said, he didn’t make a fuss.”
“You could have saved the bottle by selling it, though,” pointed out Mr. Cohen. “That bottle was entrusted to you. You didn’t fulfill your responsibility properly. You might be liable for the whiskey!”
“Why should I be liable?” asked Mr. Weiss. “What did I do wrong? If he didn’t sell his chametz, it’s his problem. Why should I have to pay for the whiskey just because he left it with me?”
“I suggest that you ask Rabbi Dayan,” said Mr. Cohen. “I’ll give you his number.”
Mr. Weiss called Rabbi Dayan and asked, “Am I liable for the bottle of whiskey?”
“Magen Avraham (443:8) holds you liable, even if you were an unpaid guardian (shomer chinam),” replied Rabbi Dayan. “Chok Yaakov holds a paid guardian (shomer sachar) liable, but exempts an unpaid guardian. Most authorities, however, exempt even a paid guardian” (Mishnah Berurah 443:12).
“What is this dispute based on?” asked Mr. Weiss.
“The Gemara (B.M. 93b) teaches that when a flock is attacked, if the shepherd neglected to gather other shepherds and enough sticks to ward off the attackers, he is liable,” explained Rabbi Dayan. “An unpaid guardian is required to gather those willing to help for free, and a paid guardian even has to hire help. Thus, an unpaid guardian who neglected to take minimal proactive action to save the entrusted item is liable.
“Magen Avraham maintains that here, too, the guardian could have sold the chametz; this is included in his responsibility” (C.M. 291:8, 303:8; Tumim 72:43).
“What is the basis for the authorities that exempt?” asked Mr. Weiss.
“The Gemara (B.M. 38a) and Shulchan Aruch base a guardian’s responsibility to sell produce that is spoiling on hashavas aveidah,” continued Rabbi Dayan. “A person who neglected to pick up and return a lost item, although he should have done so, is not held liable for it. Similarly, the guardian is not liable for not selling the chametz, although he should have sold it to spare the loss. He accepted liability only to protect the item, not to sell it” (C.M. 292:17; Shulchan Aruch HaRav, O.C. 243:8).
“Chok Yaakov (O.C. 443:7) maintains a compromise position,” concluded Rabbi Dayan. “He holds the guardian accountable for not selling the chametz, but considers it similar to theft or loss, not negligence, so that only a paid guardian is liable. He states, though, that if the owner could have sold or notified the guardian but chose not to, he caused his own loss and the guardian is not liable” (C.M. 292:22; Sha’ar HaTziyun 443:15; Pischei Choshen, Pikadon 2:37).
This article is intended for learning purposes and not to be relied upon halacha l’maaseh. There are also issues of dina d’malchusa to consider in actual cases.
Rabbi Meir Orlian is a faculty member of the Business Halacha Institute, which is headed by HaRav Chaim Kohn, shlita, a noted dayan. For questions regarding business halacha issues, or to bring a BHI lecturer to your business or shul, please call the confidential hotline at 877-845-8455 or e‑mail firstname.lastname@example.org. To receive BHI’s free newsletter, Business Weekly, send an e‑mail to email@example.com.